Newberry SJ, Chung M, Shekelle PG, Booth MS, Liu JL, Maher AR, et al. Vitamin D and calcium: a systematic review of health outcomes (update). Evidence report/technology assessment No. 217 prepared by the Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center under contract No. 290- 2012-00006-I. AHRQ Publication No. 14-E004-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2014.
Asthma. People with asthma and low blood levels of vitamin D seem to need to use an inhaler more often and have a higher risk of asthma complications. However, the role of vitamin D supplements in treating asthma is unclear. Best evidence to date shows that taking vitamin D by mouth for up to one year can reduce the rate of severe asthma attacks by about 31% to 36% in adults and children with asthma. But it's still too soon to know which, if any, people with asthma are most likely to respond to treatment with vitamin D. There is also some evidence that taking vitamin D during pregnancy can reduce the risk of a child developing asthma or wheeze for the first 3 years of life. But other research shows that high vitamin D levels during pregnancy may increase the risk of asthma in the child. It is too soon to know what vitamin D level or dose is best during pregnancy.
Bedri, A., Gudetta, B., Isehak, A., Kumbi, S., Lulseged, S., Mengistu, Y., Bhore, A. V., Bhosale, R., Varadhrajan, V., Gupte, N., Sastry, J., Suryavanshi, N., Tripathy, S., Mmiro, F., Mubiru, M., Onyango, C., Taylor, A., Musoke, P., Nakabiito, C., Abashawl, A., Adamu, R., Antelman, G., Bollinger, R. C., Bright, P., Chaudhary, M. A., Coberly, J., Guay, L., Fowler, M. G., Gupta, A., Hassen, E., Jackson, J. B., Moulton, L. H., Nayak, U., Omer, S. B., Propper, L., Ram, M., Rexroad, V., Ruff, A. J., Shankar, A., and Zwerski, S. Extended-dose nevirapine to 6 weeks of age for infants to prevent HIV transmission via breastfeeding in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda: an analysis of three randomised controlled trials. Lancet 7-26-2008;372(9635):300-313. View abstract.
Brazier, M., Grados, F., Kamel, S., Mathieu, M., Morel, A., Maamer, M., Sebert, J. L., and Fardellone, P. Clinical and laboratory safety of one year's use of a combination calcium + vitamin D tablet in ambulatory elderly women with vitamin D insufficiency: results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Ther 2005;27(12):1885-1893. View abstract.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) that is an essential micronutrient that an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism. Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the organism, either at all or not in sufficient quantities, and therefore must be obtained through the diet. Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others; it is not a vitamin in the first instance but is in the second. The term vitamin does not include the three other groups of essential nutrients: minerals, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.[2] Most vitamins are not single molecules, but groups of related molecules called vitamers. For example, vitamin E consists of four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. The thirteen vitamins required by human metabolism are: vitamin A (as all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl-esters, as well as all-trans-beta-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids), vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B7 (biotin), vitamin B9 (folic acid or folate), vitamin B12 (cobalamins), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and vitamin K (quinones).
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