Boonen, S., Broos, P., Verbeke, G., Aerssens, J., Van, Herck E., Jans, I., Dequeker, J., and Bouillon, R. Calciotropic hormones and markers of bone remodeling in age-related (type II) femoral neck osteoporosis: alterations consistent with secondary hyperparathyroidism-induced bone resorption. J Gerontol.A Biol.Sci Med Sci 1997;52(5):M286-M293. View abstract.
Zhu, X., Wang, B., Zhao, G., Gu, J., Chen, Z., Briantais, P., and Andres, P. An investigator-masked comparison of the efficacy and safety of twice daily applications of calcitriol 3 microg/g ointment vs. calcipotriol 50 microg/g ointment in subjects with mild to moderate chronic plaque-type psoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21(4):466-472. View abstract.
Thior, I., Lockman, S., Smeaton, L. M., Shapiro, R. L., Wester, C., Heymann, S. J., Gilbert, P. B., Stevens, L., Peter, T., Kim, S., van, Widenfelt E., Moffat, C., Ndase, P., Arimi, P., Kebaabetswe, P., Mazonde, P., Makhema, J., McIntosh, K., Novitsky, V., Lee, T. H., Marlink, R., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Breastfeeding plus infant zidovudine prophylaxis for 6 months vs formula feeding plus infant zidovudine for 1 month to reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission in Botswana: a randomized trial: the Mashi Study. JAMA 8-16-2006;296(7):794-805. View abstract.
It can be taken in IV, nasal spray, Sub Q injection or supplement tablets. — Kathryn Romeyn, The Hollywood Reporter, "6 Hollywood-Loved Spas and Clinics Where Stars Seek Secrets to Living Longer," 8 Aug. 2019 There are no supplements or add-ons available; everyone gets the same dishes, save for birthday or anniversary celebrants who might get an extra quenelle of ice cream for dessert. — Soleil Ho, SFChronicle.com, "At Maum in Palo Alto, a tasting menu that celebrates Korean American classics," 8 Aug. 2019 The agency is seeking details about vaping brands and models and whether users who have experienced problems were also taking medications, supplements or other drugs. — CBS News, "Can vaping trigger seizures? Health officials investigate e-cigarette risks," 8 Aug. 2019 Other medicines and supplements are added depending on the animal’s condition and needs. — Lilly Nguyen, Daily Pilot, "There’s something fishy about the smoothies at the Pacific Marine Mammal Center," 1 Aug. 2019 Many restaurants exclude weekend meals, and some offer optional wine or cocktail pairings and premium food supplements. — Michael Mayo, sun-sentinel.com, "Trouble sorting out 250 Miami Spice options? Try these 9 restaurants," 1 Aug. 2019 These supplements may take the form of collagen protein powder or collagen pills. — Better Health Market, Detroit Free Press, "The top 5 ways collagen can help your body run better," 30 July 2019 Tables are available on the quarter-hour starting at 5 p.m., with the last seating at 8 p.m. Dinner is $65, which includes the drink pairings; the meat and shrimp supplement is $15. — Carol Deptolla, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, "A wine dinner at Milwaukee's Third Coast Provisions will make vegetables the star," 29 July 2019 India’s agricultural ministry also recognises the dangers of widespread misuse of antibiotics in animal feed and supplements. — Ranjit Devraj, Quartz India, "Superbugs have returned to haunt India’s hospitals," 23 July 2019
Unlike preformed vitamin A, beta-carotene is not known to be teratogenic or lead to reproductive toxicity [1]. And even large supplemental doses (20–30 mg/day) of beta-carotene or diets with high levels of carotenoid-rich food for long periods are not associated with toxicity. The most significant effect of long-term, excess beta-carotene is carotenodermia, a harmless condition in which the skin becomes yellow-orange [1,25]. This condition can be reversed by discontinuing beta-carotene ingestion.
HIV transmission. Taking vitamin A by mouth does not lower the risk of passing HIV to the fetus during pregnancy, to newborns during delivery, or to infants during breastfeeding. In fact, early research shows that HIV-positive women who take vitamin A supplements during pregnancy might have an increased risk of passing HIV to their babies through breast milk.

Cisse, B., Sokhna, C., Boulanger, D., Milet, J., Ba, el H., Richardson, K., Hallett, R., Sutherland, C., Simondon, K., Simondon, F., Alexander, N., Gaye, O., Targett, G., Lines, J., Greenwood, B., and Trape, J. F. Seasonal intermittent preventive treatment with artesunate and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention of malaria in Senegalese children: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Lancet 2-25-2006;367(9511):659-667. View abstract.


Stempfle, H. U., Werner, C., Siebert, U., Assum, T., Wehr, U., Rambeck, W. A., Meiser, B., Theisen, K., and Gartner, R. The role of tacrolimus (FK506)-based immunosuppression on bone mineral density and bone turnover after cardiac transplantation: a prospective, longitudinal, randomized, double-blind trial with calcitriol. Transplantation 2-27-2002;73(4):547-552. View abstract.
^ Jump up to: a b Ross AC, Manson JE, Abrams SA, Aloia JF, Brannon PM, Clinton SK, et al. (January 2011). "The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: what clinicians need to know". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 96 (1): 53–8. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-2704. PMC 3046611. PMID 21118827.
In 2011, The Endocrine Society issued clinical practice guidelines for vitamin D, stating that the desirable serum concentration of 25(OH)D is >75 nmol/L (>30 ng/ml) to maximize the effect of this vitamin on calcium, bone, and muscle metabolism [40]. It also reported that to consistently raise serum levels of 25(OH)D above 75 nmol/L (30 ng/ml), at least 1,500-2,000 IU/day of supplemental vitamin D might be required in adults, and at least 1,000 IU/day in children and adolescents.
Karkkainen, M. K., Tuppurainen, M., Salovaara, K., Sandini, L., Rikkonen, T., Sirola, J., Honkanen, R., Arokoski, J., Alhava, E., and Kroger, H. Does daily vitamin D 800 IU and calcium 1000 mg supplementation decrease the risk of falling in ambulatory women aged 65-71 years? A 3-year randomized population-based trial (OSTPRE-FPS). Maturitas 2010;65(4):359-365. View abstract.
Vitamin D toxicity can cause non-specific symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, polyuria, and heart arrhythmias. More seriously, it can also raise blood levels of calcium which leads to vascular and tissue calcification, with subsequent damage to the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys [1]. The use of supplements of both calcium (1,000 mg/day) and vitamin D (400 IU) by postmenopausal women was associated with a 17% increase in the risk of kidney stones over 7 years in the Women's Health Initiative [70]. A serum 25(OH)D concentration consistently >500 nmol/L (>200 ng/mL) is considered to be potentially toxic [5].
Taking large amounts of vitamin A might harm the liver. Taking large amounts of vitamin A along with medications that might also harm the liver can increase the risk of liver damage. Do not take large amounts of vitamin A if you are taking a medication that can harm the liver.

Some medications that can harm the liver include acetaminophen (Tylenol and others), amiodarone (Cordarone), carbamazepine (Tegretol), isoniazid (INH), methotrexate (Rheumatrex), methyldopa (Aldomet), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), erythromycin (Erythrocin, Ilosone, others), phenytoin (Dilantin), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), simvastatin (Zocor), and many others.

Thinning of vaginal tissue (vaginal atrophy). Early research shows that taking vitamin D supplements for a least one year improves the surface of the vaginal wall. However, it does not seem to improve symptoms of vaginal atrophy. Vitamin D suppositories seem to help improve the surface of the vaginal wall and symptoms in women with vaginal atrophy from the cancer drug tamoxifen.
Stempfle, H. U., Werner, C., Siebert, U., Assum, T., Wehr, U., Rambeck, W. A., Meiser, B., Theisen, K., and Gartner, R. The role of tacrolimus (FK506)-based immunosuppression on bone mineral density and bone turnover after cardiac transplantation: a prospective, longitudinal, randomized, double-blind trial with calcitriol. Transplantation 2-27-2002;73(4):547-552. View abstract.
de Jong, E. M., Mork, N. J., Seijger, M. M., De La Brassine, M., Lauharanta, J., Jansen, C. T., Guilhou, J. J., Guillot, B., Ostrojic, A., Souteyrand, P., Vaillant, L., Barnes, L., Rogers, S., Klaber, M. R., and van de Kerkhof, P. C. The combination of calcipotriol and methotrexate compared with methotrexate and vehicle in psoriasis: results of a multicentre placebo-controlled randomized trial. Br J Dermatol 2003;148(2):318-325. View abstract.
In Europe are regulations that define limits of vitamin (and mineral) dosages for their safe use as dietary supplements. Most vitamins that are sold as dietary supplements are not supposed to exceed a maximum daily dosage referred to as the tolerable upper intake level (UL). Vitamin products above these regulatory limits are not considered supplements and should be registered as prescription or non-prescription (over-the-counter drugs) due to their potential side effects. The European Union, United States, Japan establish recommended upper intake levels.[8][33][34]
×