The effects of exercise training appear to be heterogeneous across non-mammalian species. As examples, exercise training of salmon showed minor improvements of endurance,[163] and a forced swimming regimen of yellowtail amberjack and rainbow trout accelerated their growth rates and altered muscle morphology favorable for sustained swimming.[164][165] Crocodiles, alligators, and ducks showed elevated aerobic capacity following exercise training.[166][167][168] No effect of endurance training was found in most studies of lizards,[166][169] although one study did report a training effect.[170] In lizards, sprint training had no effect on maximal exercise capacity,[170] and muscular damage from over-training occurred following weeks of forced treadmill exercise.[169]
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^ Jump up to: a b Denham J, Marques FZ, O'Brien BJ, Charchar FJ (February 2014). "Exercise: putting action into our epigenome". Sports Med. 44 (2): 189–209. doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0114-1. PMID 24163284. Aerobic physical exercise produces numerous health benefits in the brain. Regular engagement in physical exercise enhances cognitive functioning, increases brain neurotrophic proteins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and prevents cognitive diseases [76–78]. Recent findings highlight a role for aerobic exercise in modulating chromatin remodelers [21, 79–82]. ... These results were the first to demonstrate that acute and relatively short aerobic exercise modulates epigenetic modifications. The transient epigenetic modifications observed due to chronic running training have also been associated with improved learning and stress-coping strategies, epigenetic changes and increased c-Fos-positive neurons ... Nonetheless, these studies demonstrate the existence of epigenetic changes after acute and chronic exercise and show they are associated with improved cognitive function and elevated markers of neurotrophic factors and neuronal activity (BDNF and c-Fos). ... The aerobic exercise training-induced changes to miRNA profile in the brain seem to be intensity-dependent [164]. These few studies provide a basis for further exploration into potential miRNAs involved in brain and neuronal development and recovery via aerobic exercise.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Mura G, Moro MF, Patten SB, Carta MG (2014). "Exercise as an add-on strategy for the treatment of major depressive disorder: a systematic review". CNS Spectr. 19 (6): 496–508. doi:10.1017/S1092852913000953. PMID 24589012. Considered overall, the studies included in the present review showed a strong effectiveness of exercise combined with antidepressants. ...
The effects of exercise training appear to be heterogeneous across non-mammalian species. As examples, exercise training of salmon showed minor improvements of endurance,[163] and a forced swimming regimen of yellowtail amberjack and rainbow trout accelerated their growth rates and altered muscle morphology favorable for sustained swimming.[164][165] Crocodiles, alligators, and ducks showed elevated aerobic capacity following exercise training.[166][167][168] No effect of endurance training was found in most studies of lizards,[166][169] although one study did report a training effect.[170] In lizards, sprint training had no effect on maximal exercise capacity,[170] and muscular damage from over-training occurred following weeks of forced treadmill exercise.[169]
^ Baker, Philip RA; Dobbins, Maureen; Soares, Jesus; Francis, Daniel P; Weightman, Alison L; Costello, Joseph T (6 January 2015). "Public health interventions for increasing physical activity in children, adolescents and adults: an overview of systematic reviews". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd011454.
Pelvic floor muscle therapy, Kegel exercises, is helpful in men with premature ejaculation. In fact, in one study, pelvic floor therapy consisting of biofeedback, pelvic exercises and electrostimulation led to a cure in premature ejaculation in 50% of patients with a history of lifelong premature ejaculation, within two to six months of starting therapy.
A 2015 review of clinical evidence which included a medical guideline for the treatment of depression with exercise noted that the available evidence on the effectiveness of exercise therapy for depression suffers from some limitations;[54] nonetheless, it stated that there is clear evidence of efficacy for reducing symptoms of depression.[54] The review also noted that patient characteristics, the type of depressive disorder, and the nature of the exercise program all affect the antidepressant properties of exercise therapy.[54] A meta-analysis from July 2016 concluded that physical exercise improves overall quality of life in individuals with depression relative to controls.[44]
The benefits of exercise have been known since antiquity. Dating back to 65 BCE, it was Marcus Cicero, Roman politician and lawyer, who stated: "It is exercise alone that supports the spirits, and keeps the mind in vigor."[148] Exercise was also seen to be valued later in history during the Early Middle Ages as a means of survival by the Germanic peoples of Northern Europe.[149]
Overweight children who participate in physical exercise experience greater loss of body fat and increased cardiovascular fitness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States, children and adolescents should do 60 minutes or more of physical activity each day.[138] Implementing physical exercise in the school system and ensuring an environment in which children can reduce barriers to maintain a healthy lifestyle is essential.

Kegel exercise, also known as pelvic-floor exercise, involves repeatedly contracting and relaxing the muscles that form part of the pelvic floor, now sometimes colloquially referred to as the "Kegel muscles". The exercise can be performed multiple[quantify] times each day, for several minutes at a time, for one to three months, to begin to have an effect.[citation needed]
A systematic review evaluated 45 studies that examined the relationship between physical activity and cancer survival rates. According to the review, "[there] was consistent evidence from 27 observational studies that physical activity is associated with reduced all-cause, breast cancer–specific, and colon cancer–specific mortality. There is currently insufficient evidence regarding the association between physical activity and mortality for survivors of other cancers."[30] Although there is only limited scientific evidence on the subject, people with cancer cachexia are encouraged to engage in physical exercise.[31] Due to various factors, some individuals with cancer cachexia have a limited capacity for physical exercise.[32][33] Compliance with prescribed exercise is low in individuals with cachexia and clinical trials of exercise in this population often suffer from high drop-out rates.[32][33]
Summary of long-term adaptations to regular aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise can cause several central cardiovascular adaptations, including an increase in stroke volume (SV)[106] and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max),[106][107] as well as a decrease in resting heart rate (RHR).[108][109][110] Long-term adaptations to resistance training, the most common form of anaerobic exercise, include muscular hypertrophy,[111][112] an increase in the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of muscle(s), and an increase in neural drive,[113][114] both of which lead to increased muscular strength.[115] Neural adaptations begin more quickly and plateau prior to the hypertrophic response.[116][117]

^ Jump up to: a b Denham J, Marques FZ, O'Brien BJ, Charchar FJ (February 2014). "Exercise: putting action into our epigenome". Sports Med. 44 (2): 189–209. doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0114-1. PMID 24163284. Aerobic physical exercise produces numerous health benefits in the brain. Regular engagement in physical exercise enhances cognitive functioning, increases brain neurotrophic proteins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and prevents cognitive diseases [76–78]. Recent findings highlight a role for aerobic exercise in modulating chromatin remodelers [21, 79–82]. ... These results were the first to demonstrate that acute and relatively short aerobic exercise modulates epigenetic modifications. The transient epigenetic modifications observed due to chronic running training have also been associated with improved learning and stress-coping strategies, epigenetic changes and increased c-Fos-positive neurons ... Nonetheless, these studies demonstrate the existence of epigenetic changes after acute and chronic exercise and show they are associated with improved cognitive function and elevated markers of neurotrophic factors and neuronal activity (BDNF and c-Fos). ... The aerobic exercise training-induced changes to miRNA profile in the brain seem to be intensity-dependent [164]. These few studies provide a basis for further exploration into potential miRNAs involved in brain and neuronal development and recovery via aerobic exercise.
Children who participate in physical exercise experience greater loss of body fat and increased cardiovascular fitness.[24] Studies have shown that academic stress in youth increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in later years; however, these risks can be greatly decreased with regular physical exercise.[25] There is a dose-response relation between the amount of exercise performed from approximately 700–2000 kcal of energy expenditure per week and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged and elderly populations. The greatest potential for reduced mortality is in the sedentary who become moderately active. Studies have shown that since heart disease is the leading cause of death in women, regular exercise in aging women leads to healthier cardiovascular profiles. Most beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular disease mortality can be attained through moderate-intensity activity (40–60% of maximal oxygen uptake, depending on age). Persons who modify their behavior after myocardial infarction to include regular exercise have improved rates of survival. Persons who remain sedentary have the highest risk for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality.[26] According to the American Heart Association, exercise reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack and stroke.[23]
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